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Distillation is a very old and common process used to separate the substances composing a liquid  mixture. When the mixture is heated, the constituents vaporize according to their respective boiling temperatures. A receiving flask collects the distillate, produced by condensing the vapor.
Distillation can be used to purify substances, and to obtain:

  • gasoline from crude oil
  • essential oils from flowers, as in a lavender mash
  • alcohol from fermented fruits or grains.

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