Distillation is a very old and common process used to separate the substances composing a liquid mixture. When the mixture is heated, the constituents vaporize according to their respective boiling temperatures. A receiving flask collects the distillate, produced by condensing the vapor.
Distillation can be used to purify substances, and to obtain:
- gasoline from crude oil
- essential oils from flowers, as in a lavender mash
- alcohol from fermented fruits or grains.